NRK med feilaktige skremsler om havoppvarming
Klimanytt nr. 313. Redaktør: Ole Henrik Ellestad.
Forfattet av Ole Henrik Ellestad.
NRKs klimaskremsler er denne gangen om menneskeskapt havoppvarming. Men den marginale økningen på 0.04 C er så liten at verdien ikke nevnes, men kun gis overdrevne retoriske ytringsformer. Den minimale økningen skyldes ikke økt CO2. Sola, ikke økt CO2, varmer opp havet. Satellittmålinger viser økt solinnstråling forårsaket av mindre skydekke, i de varmeste årene. Nesten alt i NRK-artikkelen er feilaktig.
NRKs bevisste klimaforvrenging
NRKs klimastrategi skal favorisere IPCCs og myndighetenes CO2-hypotese. Etter den sedvanlige rundgang blant ulike skremselstema står oppvarming av havet for tur basert på en internasjonal studie. Michael Mann, kjent for den famøse ‘Hockeykurven’, er en av mange medforfattere. Det lover ikke godt for sannhetsgehalten, og intervjuet med Bjørn H. Samset, Cicero forsterker budskapet. I 2019 publiserte de sentrale forfatterne her en liknende artikkel som måtte trekkes tilbake, men den tilhørende IPCC-rapporten siteres.
Hovedresultatet er imidlertid at midlere temperaturøkning er særdeles liten fordi det kreves enorme energimengder grunnet de enorme mengder vann som har en stor varmekapasitet. En økning på bare ca. 0.04 C over de siste 16 varmere år gjør ikke særlig inntrykk på folk. Da benyttes et enormt energitall i zettajoule som tilsynelatende skal virke skremmende. Årlig oppvarming er kun ca. 1.5 % av jordklodens daglige mottak av solenergi. Samset hevder at CO2 må være årsaken siden solen ikke har endret strålingsintensitet. Da hopper han lett over de viktige satellittmålinger som viser økt tilførsel av solenergi grunnet mindre skydekke i de siste, varmeste 5 år. Som Samset burde være vel kjent med, rapporterer IPCC at beregningsmodellene har dårlig forståelse av skyer.
Påstander og realiteter
Hovedpåstanden er at verdenshavene aldri har vært varmere. Inne i artikkelen reduseres dette til etter 1955 for de øverste 2000 m med de siste 5 år som de gradvis varmeste. Truende havnivåstigning blir resultatet, og modellberegninger legges til grunn for at årsaken er CO2 fra økte utslipp. Nesten alt i NRK-artikkelen er feilaktig.
Realitetene er vist i figuren, slik det fremgår av Argo bøyemålinger (NOAA), ca. 4000 bøyer som flyter med strømmene rundt i verdenshavene og måler ned til 1900 m dybde. Nederst vises globale verdier målt mellom 65 N og 65 S med en gjennomsnittstemperatur på ca. 6.5 C med økning på ca. 0.04 C fra målingenes start i 2004. Dette kommer fra tropisk sektor (30 N-30 S, nest øverste kurve). Havet rundt Antarktis (55-65 S, nest nederst) har marginal økning (fra undervannsvulkaner?), mens Arktis (55-65 N, øverst) har reduksjon fra 2013 på snaut 0.15 C.
Andre kurver viser at høyeste oppvarming på 0.2 C observeres i tropisk sektor for de øverste 100 m. Det mest interessante er redusert havtemperatur fra 2012-nivå i sørlige Arktis. Det kan forklare periodisk økt isdekke og en sørligere beliggenhet av iskanten i Barentshavet.
Viktige forhold for havet
Havets midlere dybde er 3800 m, så sjiktet ned til 1900 m er bare en mindre havandel. Middeltemperaturen ved 1900 m dybde er ca. 2 C og varierer ned mot 1 C ved 5000 m. Havvann fryser ved -1.9 C. Overflatetemperaturer på over 30 C observeres kun i mindre områder, primært i Indiahavet (opptil 32 C). Havet er en av de store ukjente faktorer ifølge Walter Munk, en av de tidligere ledende oseanografer. Argo-bøyene ga en markant forbedring av datagrunnlaget fra 2004, spesielt i de største havområdene på sørlige halvkule. Selv da er usikkerheten betydelig på snaut 0.05 C, men betydelig bedre enn de tidligere data tilbake til 1955 som NRK referer til. Havets varmekapasitet er rundt 1000 ganger større enn atmosfærens (NOAA) og med havsykluser på over 1000 år og tidevannssykluser på mange tiår er 16 år med data altfor kort tid til å konkludere. Bakgrunn: Hva vet vi, hva er lite forstått, hva med dyphavet, hva med usikkerheten.
Det er derfor påfallende og meget beklagelig at NRK formidler skremmende budskap basert på arbeider som tidligere er trukket tilbake og der temperaturøkningen er til dels mindre enn usikkerheten i dataene. Manglende vurdering av usikkerhet er regelen mer enn unntaket for IPCC og var en viktig konklusjon i evalueringsrapporten om IPCC (2010) uten at det ledet til endringer.
Sola varmer opp havet
Det er sola som varmer opp havet. Ved ekvator vil det på en skyfri dag være ca. 250 W/m2 som i snitt blir absorbert inntil 200 m ned i havet. IR-strålingen som ifølge IPCCs beregningsmodeller gir en økning på 3.5 W/m2 ved dobling av CO2 fra 300-600 ppm (milliontedeler) (ca. 1.7 W/m2 på dagens nivå), vil bli absorbert i de øverste 20-30 mikrometer av overflatesjiktet, der de i hovedsak vil bidra til fordampning. Oppvarming i de senere 5-6 år er i tråd med satellittobservasjoner om redusert skydekke og tilhørende økt solinnstråling og oppvarming av havet.
Havstigningen uten sammenheng med økt CO2
NRK artikkelen hevder at oppvarming fra økt CO2 får havet til å stige. Figuren viser en av de mest omfattende globale havnivåstudier basert på tidevannsmålinger langs kyster (S. Jevrejeva et al. 2014, National Oceanographic Center, UK).
Perioden 1800-1860 viser reduksjon fordi isbreer vokste på slutten av Den lille istid. (blå kurve). Fra 1860 har det vært i snitt en jevn stigning på 1.9 mm/år (15 cm til år 2100) med litt periodisk økning forårsaket av varmeperiodene rundt 1880, 1940 og 2000 og bare litt stigning i de mellomliggende kaldere perioder. Havnivåstigning har ingen sammenheng med CO2-utslipp (rød kurve), og bekrefter den naturlige ca. 60-års syklus.
NRK artikkelen inklusive den underliggende publiserte forskerartikkel så vel som B. H. Samsets supplementer er feilaktige, overdrevne og bidrar til å villede lekfolk. Oppvarmingen av havet er minimal, og havnivåstigningen er ikke menneskeskapt. Solas, tidevannets og havstrømmers sykluser er hovedårsaken.
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