Oversvømmelsene i Kina 1931 Fra Wikipedia, den frie encyklopedi.


Oversvømmelsene i Kina 1931

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Overlevende etter flomkatastrofen i Kina (1931)

Oversvømmelsene i Kina i 1931 anses, med unntak av pandemier som for eksempel svartedauden og spanskesyken, samt de verste hungersnødkatastrofene, som den dødeligste naturkatastrofen i historisk tid. Hvor mange som forulykket kjenner man ikke nøyaktig til, men vestlige kilder anslår at mellom 3,7 og 4 millioner mennesker døde.[1][2]

Kina har gjentatte ganger blitt rammet av store flomkatastrofer opp gjennom tiden, der dødstallene kan ha kommet opp i hundretusener når de to kjempeflodene Yangtze og Huanghe har gått over sine bredder og brutt gjennom diker. Særlig ofte har flommene i Huanghe ført til store oversvømmelser. Dette har gitt elven tilnavnet «Kinas sorg».

Forløp[rediger | rediger kilde]

Katastrofen oppsto da elvene Huanghe, Yangtze og Huai flommet over sine bredder på forskjellige tidspunkt sommeren og høsten 1931. Det førte til katastrofale oversvømmelser.

I perioden 1928-1930 falt det uvanlig lite regn. Vinteren 1930-31 var imidlertid uvanlig snørik i det sentrale og det nordlige Kina, noe som førte til uvanlig heftige vårflommer, framfor alt i Huanghes dreneringsområde. Dette ble etterfulgt av en regnperiode som var svært intens med blant annet uvanlig mange tropiske sykloner. Bare i juli måned ble Sentralkina rammet av syv sykloner (mot gjennomsnittlig to i året). Langs Yangtze falt det på flere steder over 600 mm regn bare i løpet av juli måned. Resultatet av alt dette var enorme oversvømmelser av nevnte floder og deres bielver.

Huanghe[rediger | rediger kilde]

Som så mange ganger før i Kinas historie var områdene rundt Huanghes nedre løp de hardest rammede. Oversvømmelsene pågikk fra juli til november og antallet dødsoffer for selve oversvømmelsene anslås til å ha vært minst én million, ifølge noen beregninger dobbelt så mange. Regner man med alle som døde av følgeeffekter som sult og sykdommer var antallet kanskje så mange som fire millioner. Men tallene er usikre. De materielle skadene var uhyre, med ca 80 millioner mennesker hjemløse.

Yangtze og Huai[rediger | rediger kilde]

Flommen i Yangtze med bielver var verst i juli og august. Antallet døde ble av kinesiske myndigheter anslått til cirka 145 000, mens 28 millioner mennesker skal ha blitt alvorlig påvirket. Elvene Huai og Yangtze oversvømmet den daværende hovedstaden Nanjing, med enorme ødeleggelser som følge. Kvelden den 25. august brast dikene ved en innsjø, nær Keiserkanalen, som knytter Yangtze til Huanghe. Oversvømmelsen som fulgte skal ha ført til at cirka 200 000 mennesker druknet. Det brøt ut sykdommer som kolera og tyfus blant de overlevende. Koner og døtre ble solgt, og det ble rapportert om en rekke spebarnsdrap og tilfeller av kannibalisme.

Konsekvenser[rediger | rediger kilde]

I 1930-årene fulgte flere store flomkatastrofer og nasjonalistregjeringen begynte planleggingen av kjempedemninger i framforalt Yangtze for å forsøke å forhindre gjentakelser. Men den annen verdenskrig kom imellom, og selv om Mao Zedong anså at byggingen av De tre kløfters demning var høyprioritert, begynte ikke byggingen av den før i 1990-årene.

Se også[rediger | rediger kilde]

Referanser[rediger | rediger kilde]

  1. ^ Pietz, David (2002). Engineering the State: The Huai River and Reconstruction in Nationalist China 1927–1937. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-93388-9. pg xvii, pg 61–70.
  2. ^ Glantz, Mickey. Glantz, Michael H (2003). Climate Affairs: A Primer. Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-919-9. pg 252.

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